At the same time, a great deal more water from the dam — also about 120 feet away but in a slightly different direction — flows through the flume and pours down over one side of the 6 1/2-foot water wheel, causing it to turn. except a few cents for lubrication. This "dish" effect — so typical of the Fitz wheels of years ago — adds a great deal of strength to the completed wheel . In 1776 Smeaton became the first to use a cast-iron wheel, and two years later he introduced cast-iron gearing, thereby bringing to an end the all-wood construction that had prevailed since Roman….
In the 1930s, a fragment of a wooden bucket from a drainage wheel was found in deep workings at the Dolaucothi gold mine in west Wales, and is now preserved in the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff. . If you really want to go for the finer points of maximum efficiency, however, you can work from the more detailed dimensions and angles given in the full-page drawing of an overshot wheel on page 31 of MOTHER N0.
If you try to finish-weld each one as you go without tacking everything together first, you know, you can get off kilter and warp the whole wheel.". and a lot less expensive to operate year in, year out than any quiet but increasingly costly electric motor. That information is still just as valuable today for many of MOTHER's readers as it was 30 years ago . . On the other hand, the screw could be operated by a crank handle fitted to the central axle, but would be more tiring since the weight of the operator does not bear on the crank, as it does when trod from above.
and that's why THE MOTHER EARTH NEWS asked for — and received — permission to reprint the whole series as a two-part article in MOTHER NOs. Irrigation of farmland would have been the most popular application, but any activity which involved lifting water would have employed the devices. It should also be pointed out that the distance (16 inches) between the two hubs is four inches wider than the distance (12 inches) across the buckets on the rim.
One final note: The following article describes a homemade overshot water wheel set up to do only one thing . . but that's as far as their luck went.
. . And in the middle of that cross-arm — just off center in favor of the water wheel — is attached a cylinder rod which runs down to a cylinder pump that is firmly bolted to the bottom of the reservoir. Although the blooding family's water system for their house, stables, and swimming pool is powered by the stream on their farm . . Any way you go about it, you're going to learn all you need to know to lay out, install, and operate your own water-power system. — The Editors. . The ideal location, of course, for an overshot water wheel (which must be positioned in a stream at a spot where the water abruptly drops at least as far as the wheel is tall) is a natural rapids or waterfall. The overshot water wheels were highly developed in medieval times and were not replaced by water turbines and electric motors until the 19 th century. And that's all there is to the Wooding stream-run, spring-fed water system. Bassett articles from the 1947 issues of Popular Science,  you can order out MOTHER NOS. . . ), After drawing up his design (complete with "dribble" hole in the bottom of each bucket, so that the wheel is self-draining when not in use! The upper end of the connecting rod (think of it as the hand holding the handle of an old-fashioned "armstrong" water pump) is bolted to a cross-arm that runs across the top of a reservoir and is secured to a red cedar post on the other side so that it can hinge up and down. The hubs for the Wooding wheel were pretty much "Chinese copied" from the hubs manufactured years ago by the now-defunct Fitz Water Wheel Company of Hanover, Pennsylvania. Frequently used in mines and probably elsewhere (such as agricultural drainage), the reverse overshot water wheel was a Roman innovation to help remove water from the lowest levels of underground workings. When it reaches to the top of the turn, the water runs out into a channel. and a lot of other farmsteads in the country could put a variation of the same idea into use right now. Register now to get access to ALL current video workshops and prerecorded webinars plus anything new that we add through the end of 2020. and then flumed the water from the top of that dam to a spot 120 feet further downstream where the creek's banks were an additional tour feet lower. the actual water which flows through that system comes from a clear, cool, pure spring.